“Satanists are born, not made.”
—Anton Szandor LaVey (Occultist, 1930-1997 C.E.)
“Christians are made, not born.”
—Tertullian (Christian Apologist, ca. 160-235 C.E.)
When Anton Szandor LaVey makes his declarative statement that, “Satanists are born, not made,” he is responding to two discourses: it is a challenge to Christian paradigms as well as a proclamation for autonomy. First, it is a direct inversion of the early Christian theologian Tertullian’s claim, “Christians are made, not born” (Apol., xviii). Tertullian is addressing the notion that one has to learn how to act as a Christian in the world—Christianity is something that is taught, understood, and then applied. Tertulian, as one of the early church fathers writing in the Christian patristic era, was addressing the new and ever-developing concerns of Christian communities: how to live, dress, and act, adjusting one’s behaviour to reflect Christian identity. LaVey, writing in the 1970s and responding to broad historical threads of Western-Christian ideas that began with Tertullian, inverts the proclamation as an exaltation of the sovereign self—drastic changes are not required to be a Satanist. What you are, how you behave, your natural tendencies and predispositions, are all that is needed to live “satanically” in the world. You do not have to learn to be a Satanist: you were born that way. Despite LaVey’s claim that Satanism resonates with one’s preexisting dispositions, he also distinguishes that Satanism is natural to only a select few. “We are looking for a few outstanding individuals,” claims the Church of Satan website, an “alien elite” of outsiders, iconoclasts, and radicals, that resonate with the symbol of the original rebel-hero, Satan.
As members of the Church of Satan consider themselves naturally inclined to satanic ideas and practices, they view the entirety of their lives as Satanism in action; there is no distinction between theory and practice, ideal and reality, satanic and un-satanic. Satanism is considered a lived religion, where everyday life is a new opportunity to achieve their goals, maximize potential, and enjoy life’s pleasures. Living satanically is viewed as an inherent trait, wherein individuals describe a resonance with Satanism upon first exposure to its prime literature. Hence, the label of “Satanist” is adopted to represent preexisting principles and behaviours. This thesis investigates Satanism as an actively lived religion: how members of the current Church of Satan define and undertake Satanism as an applied religion via principal themes; how Satanists use and understand magic, ritual, and esotericism; how they employ Satanism in their personal and professional lives; and how their worldview engages with the broader social context from which it emerges. The Church of Satan is born within and responds to both secular and religious discourses in Western culture, as it self-identifies as religious, yet also critiques traditional religious values and institutions. Their distinctive approach to religious identity reflects the shifting demands of contemporary society—at once echoing modern discourses, yet interpreting them in a particular manner.
This thesis uses a theoretical tenet of Satanism to examine the entirety of the satanic worldview—the concept of Total Environments (TE). LaVey’s statement on Total Environments is part of a document titled: “Pentagonal Revisionism: A Five-Point Program” (1988), which outlines pro-active mandates that answer the demand for applied Satanism (versus efforts to explain what Satanism is not, i.e. child abuse, church burning, devil worship, etc.). Number five of the five-point plan reads:
The opportunity for anyone to live within a total environment of his or her choice, with a mandatory adherence to the aesthetic and behavioral standards of the same privately owned, operated and controlled environments as an alternative to homogenized and polyglot ones. The freedom to insularize oneself within a social milieu of personal well-being, an opportunity to feel, see, and hear that which is most aesthetically pleasing, without interference from those who would pollute or detract from that option.
That is, a prime mandate of Satanism is for each Satanist to proactively create their own world, and have their desires mirrored and manifest in the sensorial experience. It is a mandate for constructing a physical as well as social environment: the chosen aesthetics are simply an extension of one’s worldview. One of the ways to achieve this is to emphasize creating a total environment of their choosing: it is a reflection of what is considered their “true nature,” and this nature, by default is considered “satanic.” (Again, we are reminded of LaVey’s claim, “Satanists are born, not made.”)
The concept of TE echoes theories on contemporary self-religions. Self-religions posit themselves in opposition to perceived imposed and indoctrinated religion: it is a choice they make as sound, consenting adults with the aim of self-awareness and self-improvement (Helaas 1991). Self-religions are categorized as New Age movements, and though Satanism has relaxed affiliations with these religions, it diverges in significant ways. The Church of Satan emerges partly as a response to the hippie counterculture new age movements, by co-opting the challenge to the status quo, but also demanding a more rigorous self-awareness, one based on social Darwinist pragmatic approaches to life, not idealistic or romantic concepts of what the world and self should be, but instead a harsh examination (and acceptance) of how the world and the self actually are. As such, their notion of Total Environments is one that accepts the realities of the perceived “true self” and extends it outwards. Satanists consider their entire lives a total environment, as everything they do and are is constructed in alignment with their notion of selfhood. The material environment—the sensorial aesthetics of their ritual chamber, dress, home, car, etc.—is deliberately designed to showcase and thus manifest the will.
How Satanists understand and apply the notion of Total Environments is thus a springboard for examining their worldview en toto.